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《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之二十:一致关系

2012-2-12 16:30| 发布者: admin| 查看: 928| 评论: 0

摘要: 《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十:一致关系 1. 概述 所谓一致关系就是在英语句子中各个成分之间必须在人称、性、数等方面保持一定的语法关系。一致关系必须遵循三个原则,即语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近 ...

《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之二十:一致关系

1. 概述

所谓一致关系就是在英语句子中各个成分之间必须在人称、性、数等方面保持一定的语法关系。一致关系必须遵循三个原则,即语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

(1). 语法一致
主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。如:
The number of mistakes was surprising.
错误的数量很惊人。

(2). 意义一致

①. 主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词要用复数形式。如:
My family are having supper now.
我们一家人现在正吃晚饭。

②. 主语形式为复数而意义上却是单数,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:
Thirty dollars is too expensive for this dictionary.
这本词典30美元太贵了。

(3). 就近一致
谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如:
Not only the teacher but also his students like playing football.
不仅老师喜欢踢足球,而且学生也喜欢踢足球。

2. 主谓一致(名词与动词的一致)

(1). 单复数同形的名词作主语时谓语动词的形式
单复数同形的名词作主语时,如果表示单数意义,谓语动词用单数形式;如果表示复数意义,谓语动词用复数形式:
This glass works was set up in 1980.
这家玻璃厂建于1990年。

(2). 只有复数形式的名词作主语时谓语动词的形式。
只有复数形式的名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:
Where are my spectacles?I can’t find them.
我的眼镜呢?我找不着。

(3). 以-s结尾的不可数名词作主语时谓语动词的形式
以-s结尾的不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:
What’s the news?
有什么新闻?

(4). 以-s结尾的专有名词作主语时谓语动词的形式
① 以-s结尾的表示国家、组织等名称的专有名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,如:

the Netherlands荷兰  the United States美国  the United Nations联合国  The Canterbury Tales《坎特伯雷故事集》

② 以-s结尾的表示山脉、群岛等复数意义的专有名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:
the Alps阿尔卑斯山 the Philippine lslands菲律宾群岛 the Appalachians阿巴拉契亚山脉 the Himalayas喜马拉雅山脉
The Alps are the greatest mountain range in Europe. They cover an area of about 200,000 sq.km..
阿尔卑斯山脉是欧洲最大的山脉,其面积为20万平方公里。

(5). 集体名词作主语时谓语动词的形式

① 集体名词作主语时,如果表示整体概念,谓语动词用单数形式,如果就其中一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。如:
Nowadays almost every family in the villiahe owns a televison.
如今村上几乎每家都有电视机。
army, association,audience,band,board(董事会),cast(全体演员),choir(唱诗班),chorus, clan (部落;党派),class,city,club, college,commission, committee, company, corporation, council, couple,crew,crowd, department, enemy, faculty, family, federation, firm, gang, generation, government, group,institution,jury(陪审团), majority, mainkind, military, minority, nation, navy, opposition, orchestra, pair, party, personel, population, public, school, staff, team, tribe, union, univerty.

② 有些集体名词如:cattle, folk, militia, people, police, police, youth等,只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。如:
There are many people in the meeting room.
会议室有很多人。

③ 具有单数意义的集体名词作主语时,谓语动词为单数形式。如:
There is a lot of furniture in his living-room.
他的客厅里有很多家具。

(6). 主语为外来的复数名词时谓语动词的形式
某些外来的复数名词已没有复数意义,故谓语动词常用单数。如:
This data is very interesting.
这项数据很有意思。(也可用复数动词are)

(7). 表示时间、距离、金钱等的复数名词作主语时谓语动词的形式
当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式。如:
Three years has passed.
三年已经过去了。

(8). 代词作主语时谓语动词的形式

① 不定代词each, every, no等修饰的名词即使以and或逗号连接成多个并列主语,谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:
Every man has his fault.
每个人都有缺点。
No man is born wise.
人非生而知之。

② 如果主语由more than one…或many a …构成,尽管从意义上看是复数,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:
More than one student has seen the film.
不止一个学生看过那部电影。

③ both, (a) few, many, several等限定词修饰主语时,要用复数形式。如:
Both (of) these films are boring.
这两部电影都没意思。
Few (of) the guests are familiar to us.
客人中没有几个是我们熟悉的。

④ such, the same 起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。如:
Such is our plan.
我们的计划就是这样。

⑤ all, most, none, some等代词作主语时,要遵循意义一致的原则,即其谓语动词的单、复数形式要根据它们所代替的词的含义来确定。如: All of my classmates work hard 我们班所有同学学习都很用功。
All of the water is gone.所有的水都用光了。

⑥ 由代词each, every one, no one, either, neither,another,the other作主语,以及由合成代词some(any,no,every)+thing(body, one)雪作主语时,均跟单数谓语动词。如:
Each of the twenty guests was given a present.
给20位客人每人赠送一份礼品。

⑦ 关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中的先行词的数一致。如:
Those who want to go please sign your name here.
想去的人请把名字签在这里。

(9). 表示不定数量的短语作主语时谓语动词的形式

① a (great) number of, many, a few 修饰可数名词,其短语作主语,谓语动词一般用复数;a little, much, agreat deal of, a large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 如:
在美国发现了许多其他种类的植物,如豆类、马铃薯以及各种各样的果类。
A number of other plants were found in America, for example, beans, potatoes, and different fruits.
许多学生到农场帮助农民摘苹果去了。

② (a large) quantities修饰可数复数名词以及不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数。large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数。如:
Large quantities of water are needed for pouring purpose.
冷却需要大量的水。

③ a series of的后面接复数名词,作主语时谓语用单数形式。如:
There has been a whole series of accidents on this stretch of road recently.
最近在这一段路上发生了一连串事故。

④ the number of+可数名词, the amount of + 不可数名词,the quantity of
+可数复数名词或不可数名词构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 如:
As a result, the number of the people who travel by plane in china is larger than ever before.
结果,在中国乘飞机旅游的人数比以前大大增加。

(10). 分数或百分数作主语时谓语动词的形式
“分数或百分数 + of + 名词”构成短语或有“a lot of ,lots of,half of,plenty of ,a (large) quantity of ,the rest of,the remainder of,a heap of,heaps of + 可数或不可数名词”构成短语作主语时,谓语形式是用单数还是复数取决于它们表示的意义。试比较:
Half of the students have read the bovel.一半学生读过这本小说。
Half of the food is unfit to eat.一半的食物不能吃了。

(11). 数词、量词作主语时与谓语动词的形式

① 基数词单纯表示数字作主语时,其谓语通常用单数形式,但当基数词表示的不是数值而是数量时,谓语动词可用复数形式。如:
Ten billion is a large number.
100亿是个大数字。

② 用作运算的数词作主语时,其谓语常用单数形式。如:
Three plus(and) five is (makes, equals, gives) eight.
三加五等于八。

(12). 名词化形容词作主语时谓语动词的形式
名词化的形容词作主语,“the+形容词(或过去分词)”结构充当主语时,如表示一类可数的人或事物时,用复数谓语;如表示一类不可数的事物或少数过去分词与定冠词连用时指个别,则用单数。这类词往往有:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the dead, the deaf and dumb, the sgreeable, the oppressed, the injured, the wounded, the unemployed等。如:
The rich are for the plan, but the poor are against it.
富人赞成这项计划,但穷人反对这项计划。

(13). 非限定动词短语作主语时谓语动词的形式
动名词短语、动词不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 如:
Nodding the head means agreement, while shaking it means disagreement
点头意味着同意,摇头意味着不同意。

(14). 名词性从句作主语时谓语动词的形式
从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;由what引导的主语从句,如果从句谓语或从句后的表语是复数形式时,则要求用复数形式的谓语。如:
Whether he will come or not is uncertain.
他来不来还不一定。

(15). 用连接词连接的名词或代词作主语时谓语动词的形式

① 由连接词连接的名词或代词作主语。
用and或both…and连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。如:
Lucy and Lily are twins
露茜和莉莉是孪生姐妹。
Chapter three and the last chapter are written by Professor Liu.
第三章和最后一章是由刘教授写的。

② 当名词或代词后跟有with, as well as, as much as, no less than, along with, like, rather than, together with, but,except, besides, including, in additionto, combined with等连接作主语时,谓语动词一般和前一名词或代词的人称和数一致。 如:
John, rather than his roommates, is to blame.
约翰,而不是他的室友,应该受到责备。

(16). or,either...or,neither...nor,not only...but also等连接的并列主语的谓语动词形式
以or, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but
also等连接的并列主语的谓语动词形式,通常依据就近原则,即人称和数的形式与最靠近它的名词或代词保持一致。如:
You or he is in the wrong.
不是你错了,就是他错了。

(17). there+be句型中并列主语的谓语动词形式
在“there+be”句型中,there+be之后的名词是句子的主语。主语是单数则谓语动词为is/was,主语是复数则动词为are/were。如果句子的主语是两个以上的名词,又有单数和复数的区别,则采取就近一致原则。即邻近动词的名词是单数则动词用is/was,邻近动词的名词是复数则动词用are/were。如:
There is a laser printer and a cordless telephone on the desk.
桌子上有一台激光打印机和一部无绳电话。

3. 主语与状语逻辑主语的一致

表示时间、条件以及伴随情况等状语的逻辑主语必须和句子的主语保持一致,否则意义就会含混不清。如:
: Having been delayed by heavy traffic, it was important for her to arrive on time.
: Having been delayed by heavy traffic, she found it important for her to arrive on time.
由于交通堵塞的耽搁,她觉得不可能按时到达了。
: After finishing his speech, the audience was invited to ask question.
: After finishing his speech, he invited the audience to ask question.
他发完言后,邀请听众提问题。

4. 同等成分的一致

(1).句子中的同等成分应该在结构上保持一致,否则会使句子失去平衡和协调。
Sleep, rest and relaxed are the best remedies for many headaches.
睡眠、休息和娱乐是治疗多种头痛的最好方法。(应改为:relaxation)
The oxygen in the air we breathe has no tasted, smell, or color.
我们所呼吸的空气中的氧是无味、无嗅和无色的。(应改为:taste)
误: Collecting stamps, playing chess and to catch butterflies are Mary’s hobbies.
正: Collecting stamps, playing chess and catching butterflies are Mary’s hobbies.
集邮、下棋和捉蝴蝶是玛丽的爱好。

(2).在比较结构中,被比较的事物应是同等成分。在比较从句中常用that代替前面单数名词,用those代替复数名词。
误: The workers in that factories are fewer than our factory.
正: The workers in that factories are fewer than those our factory.
那个工厂的工人比我们厂的工人少。

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